So, you’re going on a trip to one of the Swahili-speaking countries of eastern Africa. You want to learn a few words, to be able to communicate the basics, but don’t plan on diving into a full course. Nouns are cute, but unless you just plan on pointing at random objects and declaring “table” and “chicken,” you’re going to need some verbs.
You’re in the exact right place. Welcome to a crash course in Swahili verbs, made just for you.
I get it — you don’t want a grammar lesson. But, there’s nothing more confusing than saying “you want” when you really mean “I want”. So, allow me the teensiest little bit of grammar, and you’ll be on your way soon enough.
How Swahili Verbs Are Formed (A Grammar Lesson You Won’t Hate)
Swahili verbs have three basic parts, so when you see a verb, I want you to think “who-when-what.”
Swahili verbs usually start with the “who” — the subject. Swahili has many subject pronouns (more than English), but here, we’ll just look at six related to people.
- ni = I
- u = you (singular)
- a = he/she
- tu = we
- m = you (plural, like ya’ll)
- wa = they
If that’s too much, you can focus on just learning “ni = I” and “u = you,” but if you can take a few minutes and remember all six, that’ll really expand your Swahili skills without too much effort.
Got nightmares of high school language class, and horribly complex conjugations? Welcome to your salvation. While Swahili verbs have some complex conjugations, the basic tenses are both regular and quite straightforward.
- li = past
- na = present
- ta = future
You might also hear “me” being used instead of “li” for the past tense. “Me” is used for the present perfect (ie. past events which happened very recently) compared to “li” for the simple past. You can think of “me” in sentences like “I have eaten” vs. “li” in sentences like “I ate.”
So, the last part is the “what” — what is actually happening, what verb do you want to use?
Verbs in Swahili are written with a “ku” at the beginning in the infinitive. So, simply put, “kusafiri” means “to travel,” and then (if we take away the “ku”), “safiri” means “travel.”
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER: WHO-WHEN-WHAT
So, now that you know the three parts, we can smash it all together. No, seriously – you just smash them all together, into one big word. Let’s look at an example.
NINASAFIRI: If you break it down, you’ll see we’ve got ni-na-safiri, which is literally I-present-travel. So, “I travel” in Kiswahili is “ninasafiri.”
Now, we’ll go through a set of basic verbs — the ones you’re most likely to use during your travels.
Useful Swahili Verbs, Conjugated and Ready For Action
Now, there are certain sentences you’re more likely to use than others. For example, you might say “I want” on a regular basis, but you’d rarely use “you all want.” So, as I list some useful verbs, I’ll include some of the useful possible conjugations, and leave out the less frequent versions.
Note: We haven’t gone over conjugations in the negative, but it can often be quite useful. I’ll include negatives for certain verbs, where it might be useful for you.
- kuomba (to ask for, request): ninaomba (I am asking for, often used as “could I please have), tunaomba (we are asking for)
- kuenda/kwenda (to go): tunaenda (we are going), nilienda (I went), nitaenda (I will go), siendi (I don’t/won’t go)
- kutaka (to want): ninataka (I want), sitaki (I don’t want), unataka (do you want), wanataka (they want)
- kuhitaji (to need): unahitaji (you need), ninahitaji (I need)
- kusafiri (to travel): wanasafiri (they travel), ninasafiri (I travel)
- kurudi (to come back): ninarudi (I’m coming back), tunarudi (we’re coming back), utarudi (you will come back)
- kupenda (to like/love): ninapeda (I like), unapenda (you like)
- kulala (to sleep): umelala (you have slept), nitalala (I will sleep)
- kutembelea (visit): nimetembelea (I have visited), utatembelea (you will visit)
- kula (to eat): nimekula (I have eaten), sili (I don’t eat), tunakula (we eat)
As I’m writing this, I am sure there are more things that could do with a further explanation, if you’re interested. I’ll leave it there for now, to keep this a quick traveller’s guide, but please comment if there’s anyt