Somali: Present Tense (Positive)

In this post, we’re going to go through the present tense conjugation, and then do some practice with it.

Conjugating the Present Tense

The present tense in Somali is quite straightforward. You’re just going to take the verb and add suffixes, depending on who the subject is.

subjectverb ends in consonantverb ends in I or EEverb ends in “consonant-consonant-O”(drop the O)verb ends in “vowel-consonant-O”(drop the O)
This table shows the suffixes added in the present tense, depending on the subject.

Overall, we can notice the following patterns:

  • When the subject is either “you” (waad) or “she” (way), the suffix starts with /t/.
  • When the subject is plural, the suffix includes /n/. The /n/ comes at the beginning of the “we” (waannu/weynu) suffix, and at the end of the “you all” (waad) and “they” (wey) suffixes.

The first two columns are very similar, with the following differences:

  • The /+aa/ suffix changes to /+yaa/ when the verb ends in I or EE. This is already how we pronounce that “i+aa” sound, so just remember to actually write in that /y/.
  • The /+taa/ suffix changes to /+saan/ when the verb ends in I or EE.

The last two columns get a bit more complicated, but the general idea (especially with /n/ in plural suffixes) remains. That being said, there are some exceptions and irregularities, so consider the above table as a general rule.

Examples in Practice!

We’re going to start with a collection of sentences using household vocabulary to describe daily routines, mostly conjugated for “waan” (I). Notice how we use waxaan instead of waan when there is an object.

Somali SentenceConjugation BreakdownEnglish Translation
Maxaad sameesaa maalin kasta?samee = do/make
samee+saa = you do
What do you do every day?
Waan kacaa.kac = wake up
kac+aa = I wake up
I wake up.
Waan qubeystaa.qubeys(o) = shower
qubeys+taa = I shower
(notice how “O” drops)
I shower.
Waxaan gashtaa dharkayga.gash(o) = put on
gash+taa = I put on
I get dressed.
Waan cadaydaa.caday(o) = brush teeth
caday+daa = I brush (my) teeth
I brush my teeth.
Waxaan dhaqaa wejigayga.dhaq = wash
dhaq+aa = I wash
I wash my face.
Waan quraacdaa.quraac(o) = eat breakfast
quraac+daa = I eat breakfast
I eat breakfast.
Waxaan baxaa gurigayga.bax = leave
bax+aa = I leave
I leave my house.

Next, let’s look at some sentences which use other pronouns (we don’t want to be selfish)!

Somali SentenceConjugation BreakdownEnglish Translation
Af Soomaliga waxaannu hadalnaa.hadal = speak
hadal+naa = we speak
We speak Somali.
Hilib waxay cuntaa.cun = eat
cun+taa = she eats
She eats meat.
Qado waxay cunaan.cun = eat
cun+aan = they eat
They eat lunch.
Cunto waxuu sameeyaa.samee = make
samee+yaa = he makes
He makes food.
Buug waxaad akhrisaa.akhri = read
akhri+saa = you read
You read a book.
Way shaqtaa.shaqo = work
shaqo-o+taa = she works
She works.
Jir waxaaannu dhisidnaa.jir dhisid = exercise
dhisid+naa = we exercise
We exercise.
Way tukadtaantukado = pray
tukado-o+taan = they pray
They pray.

If anyone spots any corrections (or has any questions), please don’t hesitate to comment! Otherwise, happy studying!